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The Interpretation of Dreams

中文名:
夢的解析
作者:
西格蒙德·弗洛伊德 Sigmuend Freud
類型:
心理學
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夢的解析(The Interpretation of Dreams)簡介:
The Interpretation of Dreams is a book by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. The first edition was first published in German in November 1899 as Die Traumdeutung (though post-dated as 1900 by the publisher). The publication inaugurated the theory of Freudian dream analysis, which activity Freud famously described as "the royal road to the understanding of unconscious mental processes".

At the beginning of Chapter One, Freud describes his work thus:

In the following pages, I shall demonstrate that there is a psychological technique which makes it possible to interpret dreams, and that on the application of this technique, every dream will reveal itself as a psychological structure, full of significance, and one which may be assigned to a specific place in the psychic activities of the waking state. Further, I shall endeavour to elucidate the processes which underlie the strangeness and obscurity of dreams, and to deduce from these processes the nature of the psychic forces whose conflict or co-operation is responsible for our dreams.
The book introduces Freud's theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation. Dreams, in Freud's view, were all forms of "wish-fulfillment" — attempts by the unconscious to resolve a conflict of some sort, whether something recent or something from the recessess of the past (later in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud would discuss dreams which did not appear to be wish-fulfillment). However, because the information in the unconscious is in an unruly and often disturbing form, a "censor" in the preconscious will not allow it to pass unaltered into the conscious. During dreams, the preconscious is more lax in this duty than in waking hours, but is still attentive: as such, the unconscious must distort and warp the meaning of its information to make it through the censorship. As such, images in dreams are often not what they appear to be, according to Freud, and need deeper interpretation if they are to inform on the structures of the unconscious.

Freud makes his argument by first reviewing previous scientific work on dream analysis, which he finds interesting but inadequate. He then describes a number of dreams which illustrate his theory. Many of his most important dreams are his own — his method is inaugurated with an analysis of his dream "Irma's injection" — but many also come from patient case studies. Much of Freud's sources for analysis are in literature, and the book is itself as much a self-conscious attempt at literary analysis as it is a psychological study. Freud here also first discusses what would later become the theory of the Oedipus complex.

The initial print run of the book was very low — it took many years to sell out the first 600 copies. Freud revised the book at least eight times, and in the third edition added an extensive section which treated dream symbolism very literally, following the influence of Wilhelm Stekel. Later psychoanalysts have expressed frustration with this section, as it encouraged the notion that dream interpretation was a straightforward hunt for symbols of sex, penises, etc. (Example: "Steep inclines, ladders and stairs, and going up or down them, are symbolic representations of the sexual act.") These approaches have been largely abandoned in favor of more comprehensive methods.[citation needed]

Widely considered to be his most important contribution to psychology, Freud said of this work, "Insight such as this falls to one's lot but once in a lifetime."  夢的解析(德語:Die Traumdeutung)是西格蒙德·弗洛伊德的一本著作,第一版出版于1899年11月。該書開創了弗洛伊德的“夢的解析”理論,被作者本人描述為“理解潛意識心理過程的捷徑。”
  該書引入了本我概念,描述了弗洛伊德的潛意識理論,用于解釋夢。根據弗洛伊德的觀點,夢都是“愿望的滿足”—嘗試用潛意識來解決各部分的沖突(在后來的《超越快樂原則》中,弗洛伊德認為夢并不是顯示愿望滿足。)。不過,由于潛意識中的信息不受拘束,通常讓人難堪,潛意識中的“稽察者”不允許它未經改變就進入意識。在夢中,前意識比清醒時放松了此項職責,但是仍然在關注,于是潛意識被扭曲其意義,以通過審查。同樣,夢中的形象通常并非它們顯現的樣子,按照弗洛伊德所說,需要用潛意識的結構進行更深的解釋。
  弗洛伊德首先回顧了此前關于分析夢的科學著作,他認為雖然有趣但是不夠充分。然后他記述了許多夢,來闡明他的理論。他許多最重要的夢是他本人的— 他的方法開始于分析他的夢“Irma's injection” —但是也有許多來自病人的個案研究。弗洛伊德進行分析的許多來源來自文學作品,該書本身更多的是一次文學分析的自覺嘗試,超過心理學研究的成分。弗洛伊德在此首次討論了后來發展的戀母情結理論。
  起初該書的銷量極低 —經過許多年才賣出600冊。弗洛伊德對該書的修訂至少有8次,在第3版中增加了很大的篇幅,鼓勵夢的解析就是直接搜尋陰莖等性的標志的想法(如.(例如:“陡坡、階梯和樓梯,上去和下來,是性行為的象征符號。”體現了威赫姆·斯特科的影響。后來心理分析學者表示這一部分受到了挫折,這些方法在很大程度上已被放棄,轉而使用更全面的方法。
  普遍認為,該書是他對心理學最重要的貢獻,弗洛伊德這樣說到他的作品,“Insight such as this falls to one's lot but once in a lifetime.”

西格蒙德·弗洛伊德的作品

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