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Walden

中文名:
瓦爾登湖
作者:
梭羅 Henry David Thoreau
類型:
小說經典
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瓦爾登湖(Walden)簡介:

Walden (first published as Walden; or, Life in the Woods) by Henry David Thoreau is an American classic. The work is part personal declaration of independence, social experiment, voyage of spiritual discovery, and manual for self reliance.

Published in 1854, it details Thoreau's sojourn in a cabin near Walden Pond, amidst woodland owned by his friend and mentor Ralph Waldo Emerson, near Concord, Massachusetts. However, Emerson's lack of enthusiasm for the project can be seen in this thought delivered during Thoreau's funeral:

I so much regret the loss of his rare powers of action, that I cannot help counting it a fault in him that he had no ambition. Wanting this [that is, lacking ambition] instead of engineering for all America, he was the captain of a huckleberry party. Pounding beans is good to the end of pounding empires one of these days; but if, at the end of years, it is still only beans!"

Thoreau did not intend to live as a hermit, for he received visitors and returned their visits. Rather, he hoped to isolate himself from society to gain a more objective understanding of it. Simple living and self-sufficiency were Thoreau's other goals, and the whole project was inspired by transcendentalist philosophy, a central theme of the American Romantic Period. As Thoreau made clear in his book, his cabin was not in wilderness but at the edge of town, not far from his family home.

  瓦爾登湖(Walden; or, Life in the Woods),中國大陸譯“瓦爾登湖”,臺灣譯“湖濱散記”,是美國作家亨利·戴維·梭羅所著的一本著名散文集。
  該書出版于1854年,梭羅在書中詳盡地描述了他在瓦爾登湖湖畔一片再生林中度過兩年又兩月的生活以及期間他的許多思考。瓦爾登湖地處美國馬薩諸塞州東部的康科德城,離梭羅家不遠。梭羅把這次經歷稱為簡樸隱居生活的一次嘗試。
  美國的19世紀是個輝煌的時代,一大批作家都深受超驗主義的影響,主活在這一時代的梭羅也不例外。作為這個時代的代表人物,梭羅對超驗主義更是身體力行,《瓦爾登湖》就是他這一思想的體現,它是一部蘊含了深刻哲理的散文。細細讀過《瓦爾登湖》的人都有體會;他是在探求怎樣實實在在的生活,怎樣體驗與經歷有意義的生活,為自己,也為他的市民同胞,還有當時與后來的讀者們。
  本書以春天開始,歷經了夏天、秋天和冬天,又以春天結束,這正是一個生命的輪回,終點又是起點,生命開始復蘇。
  這是一本寧靜、恬淡、充滿智慧的書。其中分析生活,批判習俗處,語語驚人,字字閃光,見解獨特,耐人尋味。許多篇頁是形象描繪,優美細致,像湖水的純潔透明,像山林的茂密翠綠;也有一些篇頁說理透徹,十分精辟,給人啟迪。
  這是一本清新、健康、引人向上的書,對于春天,對于黎明,都有極其動人的描寫。這里有大自然給人的澄凈的空氣,而無工業社會帶來的環境污染。讀著它,讀者自然會感覺到心靈的純凈,精神的升華。
  《瓦爾登湖》的偉大之處就在于梭羅能夠通過藝術來實現自己決意要做的事業。通過創造一個有機的形式,他使自己的決定獲得了新生:通過有意識的努力,他重新獲得了一種成熟的恬靜,如果說那不是黃金年齡的清純狂喜的話。
  整個《瓦爾登湖》記錄著自我在微觀宇宙歷程中的經歷。
  如果梭羅僅僅給我們留下一部一個男人在林中生活的記載,或者說他僅僅退隱到森林之中,在那兒記載著他對社會的抱怨。甚至說,如果他想把這兩者都合到一本書里,那么《瓦爾登湖》就不會有這一百年的生命。
  正像一切所進展的一樣,梭羅記下了人跟自然的關系,人在社會中的困境和人希望提高自然的關系,人在社會中的困境和人希望提高自我精神的習性,連他自己恐怕也沒有意識到自己在做什么;他一會兒為自我辯護,一會兒充滿了喜悅、自由、奔放、創造出了一個獨特的煎蛋卷,讓人們在饑餓的一天不斷從中汲以營養。《瓦爾登湖》是最早一盤充滿維生素的菜肴之一。

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